Mac 包管理工具 Homebrew

The missing package manager for macOS (or Linux)

Homebrew 是 Mac 上不可或缺的提升效率的工具之一,安装管理三方库非常方便,称之为神器一点也不违和。

安装

命令行安装

/bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/HEAD/install.sh)"

常规使用

  • 查看帮助,通过帮助命令可以快速的了解工具

    Example usage:
      brew search TEXT|/REGEX/
      brew info [FORMULA|CASK...]
      brew install FORMULA|CASK...
      brew update
      brew upgrade [FORMULA|CASK...]
      brew uninstall FORMULA|CASK...
      brew list [FORMULA|CASK...]
    
    Troubleshooting:
      brew config
      brew doctor
      brew install --verbose --debug FORMULA|CASK
    
    Contributing:
      brew create URL [--no-fetch]
      brew edit [FORMULA|CASK...]
    
    Further help:
      brew commands
      brew help [COMMAND]
      man brew
      https://docs.brew.s
  • 查看版本

    brew --version
    Homebrew 3.2.13
    Homebrew/homebrew-core (git revision 8c2de31c095; last commit 2021-09-23)
    Homebrew/homebrew-cask (git revision fc44a06e1b; last commit 2021-09-23)
  • 查看配置信息

    brew config
    HOMEBREW_VERSION: 3.2.13
    ORIGIN: git://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/brew.git
    HEAD: 109f24fd601177dea4a754b43efe684903db2a83
    Last commit: 8 days ago
    Core tap ORIGIN: git://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/homebrew-core.git
    Core tap HEAD: 8c2de31c095c0025f447dd39f978a8506ed86bad
    Core tap last commit: 5 days ago
    Core tap branch: master
    HOMEBREW_PREFIX: /usr/local
    HOMEBREW_BOTTLE_DOMAIN: https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/homebrew-bottles
    HOMEBREW_CASK_OPTS: []
    HOMEBREW_MAKE_JOBS: 8
    Homebrew Ruby: 2.6.3 => /System/Library/Frameworks/Ruby.framework/Versions/2.6/usr/bin/ruby
    CPU: octa-core 64-bit haswell
    Clang: 13.0.0 build 1300
    Git: 2.30.1 => /Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/usr/bin/git
    Curl: 7.64.1 => /usr/bin/curl
    macOS: 11.5.2-x86_64
    CLT: 13.0.0.0.1.1630607135
    Xcode: 13.0
  • 安装

    brew install tree  
    ==> Downloading https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/homebrew-bottles/tree-1.8.0.big_sur.
    ######################################################################## 100.0%
    ==> Pouring tree-1.8.0.big_sur.bottle.tar.gz
    🍺  /usr/local/Cellar/tree/1.8.0: 8 files, 157.7KB
    
    如果已经安装可以使用 reinstall 再次安装
    brew install tree  
    Warning: tree 1.8.0 is already installed and up-to-date.
    To reinstall 1.8.0, run:
      brew reinstall tree
  • 卸载

    brew uninstall tree  
    Uninstalling /usr/local/Cellar/tree/1.8.0... (8 files, 117KB)
  • 搜索库

    brew search tree 
    ==> Formulae
    as-tree         datree          tree ✔          treecc          tre
    cherrytree      pstree          tree-sitter     treefrog
    ==> Casks
    figtree                    sourcetree                 treesheets
  • 查看包信息

    brew info ffmpeg
    ffmpeg: stable 4.4 (bottled), HEAD
    Play, record, convert, and stream audio and video
    https://ffmpeg.org/
    Not installed
    From: git://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/homebrew-core.git/Formula/ffmpeg.rb
    License: GPL-2.0-or-later
    ==> Dependencies
    Build: nasm ✔, pkg-config ✔
    Required: aom ✔, dav1d ✔, fontconfig ✔, freetype ✔, frei0r ✔, gnutls ✔, lame ✔, libass ✔, libbluray ✔, libsoxr ✔, libvidstab ✔, libvorbis ✔, libvpx ✔, opencore-amr ✔, openjpeg ✔, opus ✔, rav1e ✔, rubberband ✔, sdl2 ✔, snappy ✔, speex ✔, srt ✔, tesseract ✔, theora ✔, webp ✔, x264 ✔, x265 ✔, xvid ✔, xz ✔, zeromq ✔, zimg ✔
    ==> Options
    --HEAD
    	Install HEAD version
    ==> Analytics
    install: 72,815 (30 days), 244,572 (90 days), 1,621,840 (365 days)
    install-on-request: 57,454 (30 days), 195,761 (90 days), 1,340,918 (365 days)
    build-error: 0 (30 days)
  • 全面更新

    ➜  ~ brew update     
    Updated 2 taps (homebrew/core and homebrew/cask).
    ==> New Formulae
    cyral-gimme-db-token       lastz                      neovim-qt
    ==> Updated Formulae
    coreutils ✔         feh                 literate-git        rover
    fribidi ✔           flow                lmod                ruby-build
    leptonica ✔         fonttools           localstack          ruby-install
    aliyun-cli          fpart               logstash            rust-analyzer
    angular-cli         functionalplus      mandoc              s2n
    aravis              gd                  marp-cli            salt
    arb                 gdu                 maxwell             seal
    awscli              geckodriver         micronaut           semgrep
    baobab              geph4               minio               serverless
    bbtools             ghz                 minio-mc            simple-scan
    bear                ghz-web             mint                smimesign
    bgpq3               git-series          mockolo             snakemake
    bison               gitfs               moto                snort
    capnp               gitless             mydumper            solidity
    cargo-c             glooctl             nativefier          sourcery
    cargo-edit          gomodifytags        nats-server         spack
    cargo-llvm-lines    gomplate            ncspot              sqlite-utils
    cargo-outdated      goreleaser          neo4j               step
    cargo-watch         gostatic            neovim              stgit
    cdktf               gpsd                netlify-cli         structurizr-cli
    cfn-lint            graphviz            newrelic-cli        subfinder
    chapel              homeassistant-cli   no-more-secrets     svgo
    checkov             immudb              node                swift-format
    chezmoi             influxdb-cli        node-build          swift-protobuf
    cilium-cli          infracost           ola                 terragrunt
    circleci            ioctl               onnxruntime         tfsec
    citus               ipopt               openalpr            thors-serializer
    clarinet            ipython             opencv@3            tile38
    cmark               istioctl            openssh             toast
    commitizen          itstool             orientdb            torchvision
    conmon              jc                  ormolu              truffle
    consul-template     jruby               osm                 twarc
    cpm                 jsonrpc-glib        parallel            uftrace
    cppad               julia               pass-git-helper     urlview
    cppzmq              kafka               php                 vala
    cubejs-cli          kcgi                php@7.3             viddy
    dar                 kcptun              php@7.4             vips
    datalad             keptn               phpunit             virtualenv
    datree              kn                  picat               vulkan-headers
    delve               ko                  pmd                 webpack
    devspace            kube-linter         pnpm                when
    digdag              kubeconform         prestodb            whistle
    doc8                lean-cli            psqlodbc            xcodegen
    docker-slim         libcouchbase        pygitup             xmrig
    dolt                libexif             pyright             xray
    dotnet              libgit2             questdb             xterm
    dprint              libgit2-glib        rabbitmq            yosys
    druid               libmtp              radare2             yt-dlp
    dvc                 libphonenumber      rancher-cli         zeek
    esbuild             libplctag           red-tldr            zim
    exploitdb           libtorch            rfcmarkup
    fastlane            libvmaf             richmd
    fava                libzip              riemann-client
    ==> New Casks
    cloudash                   jupyterlab                 thetimemachinemechanic
    dropbox-capture            rancher                    tidelift
    firmaec                    remarkable
    ==> Updated Casks
    010-editor                               keeper-password-manager
    3dgenceslicer                            keyman
    ableton-live-suite                       kotlin-native
    ajour                                    kstars
    almighty                                 kubenav
    altair-graphql-client                    kui
    anka-virtualization                      leapp
    anydesk                                  lens
    atlauncher                               librewolf
    avocode                                  linear-linear
    backblaze                                loaf
    balenaetcher                             lofi
    bibdesk                                  logisim-evolution
    blitz                                    logseq
    bunch                                    loom
    cakebrewjs                               lrtimelapse
    calibre                                  lunar-client
    canva                                    macvim
    chirp                                    mambaforge
    chromedriver                             metasploit
    chromium                                 microsoft-azure-storage-explorer
    chronicle                                microsoft-edge
    clamxav                                  microsoft-teams
    clash-for-windows                        miro
    clay                                     monitorcontrol
    cocktail                                 mtgaprotracker
    cog                                      mudlet
    coolterm                                 mweb-pro
    cozy-drive                               netron
    crystalmaker                             ocenaudio
    cutter                                   onionshare
    dash                                     opencore-configurator
    datweatherdoe                            operator
    deepl                                    paw
    deltachat                                plex
    dingtalk                                 pop
    dmenu-mac                                portfolioperformance
    drawio                                   porting-kit
    dwarf-fortress                           qqmusic
    dwarf-fortress-lmp                       quaternion
    electron                                 raycast
    element                                  rocket-chat
    eloston-chromium                         royal-tsx
    enclave                                  sabnzbd
    evernote                                 sapmachine-jdk
    expressvpn                               session
    fantastical                              sharemouse
    far2l                                    signet
    feishu                                   siyuan
    figma                                    sparrow
    firecamp                                 stats
    firefox                                  tableau
    flipper                                  telegram
    flotato                                  telegram-desktop
    foobar2000                               tempo
    fork                                     temurin
    free-download-manager                    termius
    freedom                                  texstudio
    freeplane                                thunderbird
    futubull                                 tradingview
    fvim                                     trezor-suite
    geph                                     tutanota
    ghost-browser                            unity
    gns3                                     unity-android-support-for-editor
    google-chrome                            unity-ios-support-for-editor
    google-cloud-sdk                         unity-linux-support-for-editor
    grammarly                                unity-lumin-support-for-editor
    hstracker                                unity-webgl-support-for-editor
    imazing                                  unity-windows-support-for-editor
    invoker                                  videofusion
    isubtitle                                webcatalog
    isyncr                                   webex
    ivideonserver                            xattred
    jamf-migrator                            ximalaya
    jamovi                                   yesplaymusic
    jaxx-liberty                             yinxiangbiji
    jprofiler                                yuque
    julia                                    zerotier-one
    jumpshare                                zoom-for-it-admins
    keep-it
    ==> Deleted Casks
    microsoft-lync                           microsoft-r-open
    
    You have 25 outdated formulae and 1 outdated cask installed.
    You can upgrade them with brew upgrade
    or list them with brew outdated.
  • 查看已经安装的包

    brew list
    ==> Formulae
    aom			libev			ninja
    autoconf		libevent		oniguruma
    autojump		libffi			opencore-amr
    automake		libgpg-error		openjpeg
    bdw-gc			libidn2			openssl@1.1
    brotli			libksba			opus
    c-ares			libogg			p11-kit
    cairo			libpng			pcre
    carthage		libpthread-stubs	pixman
    cmake			libsamplerate		pkg-config
    cocoapods		libsndfile		python@3.9
    coreutils		libsodium		rav1e
    curl			libsoxr			readline
    dav1d			libtasn1		rubberband
    fdk-aac			libtiff			sdl2
    flac			libtool			snappy
    fontconfig		libunistring		speex
    freetype		libuv			sphinx-doc
    frei0r			libvidstab		sqlite
    fribidi			libvorbis		srt
    gdbm			libvpx			tesseract
    gettext			libx11			thefuck
    giflib			libxau			theora
    glib			libxcb			tree
    gmp			libxdmcp		uchardet
    gnutls			libxext			unbound
    go			libxrender		watchman
    gobject-introspection	libyaml			webp
    graphite2		little-cms2		wget
    guile			luajit			wrk
    harfbuzz		lzo			x264
    icu4c			m4			x265
    jansson			mono			xctool
    jemalloc		mpdecimal		xorgproto
    jpeg			mrffmpeg		xvid
    jq			mujs			xz
    lame			nasm			yasm
    leptonica		nettle			zeromq
    libass			nghttp2			zimg
    libbluray		nginx			zlib
    
    ==> Casks
    provisionql
  • 自我检查与修复

    brew doctor

开发相关

Formula: brew 是一个通用的工具,理论上可以管理任意包,为了达到通用,brew 就为包安装定义了一套固定流程,所有的包安装步骤都是一样的,把不同的地方,当到包的配置文件里,brew 通过配置文件得知如何安装这个包,这个包依赖了哪些包,从哪里下载这个包,这个包是否提供预编译的二进制等信息,这个配置文件称为 Formula。

tap

存放 Formula 文件的 Git 仓库称为 tap。

  • 查看当前 taps

    brew tap          
    homebrew/cask
    homebrew/core
    homebrew/services
    iina/mpv-iina
    matt/core
  • 创建 tap

创建一个 Git 仓库,创建名为 Formula 的文件夹,然后在里面创建你包的 Formula 文件,
这是一个仓库,所以可以存放很多包,Formula 文件。

第一次写不知道如何写,可以去 homebrew-core 随便找个看下 Homebrew Formulae,比如这个是 ffmeg 的 Formula 文件,类名要和包名要一样,否则会报错,不要和已经存在的包同名。

包的 Formula 文件写好后,推送到 Git 服务器,然后让 brew 管理这个仓库,这样 brew 就能找到你这个 tap 里的包了,后续就可以 brew install 了。

# tap 路径自己命名,然后跟上 git 仓库地址
brew tap matt/core https://github.com/debugly/BrewFormula.git
# 安装 tap 里包含的库
brew install mrffmpeg
  • 编辑 Formula 文件
brew edit mrffmpeg
Warning: edit is a developer command, so
Homebrew's developer mode has been automatically turned on.
To turn developer mode off, run brew developer off

Editing /usr/local/Homebrew/Library/Taps/matt/homebrew-core/Formula/mrffmpeg.rb
Warning: Using vim because no editor was set in the environment.
This may change in the future, so we recommend setting EDITOR,
or HOMEBREW_EDITOR to your preferred text editor.
  • 测试 Formula 文件

    开发包的 Formula 文件可能存在不合适的地方,需要多次编辑后,然后 install 库测试无误后,把最终的 Formula 文件复制出来,然后放到 git 仓库里提交。

  • 对于其他用户,重新安装 tap 就会更新 Formula 文件

untap

移除使用 tap 安装的仓库。

brew untap matt/core                      

Error: Refusing to untap matt/core because it contains the following installed formulae or casks:

mrffmpeg

因为 mrffmpeg 库是通过 matt/core 这个 tap 安装的,因此不能移除这个 tap,需要先卸载 mrffmpeg 这个库才行。

brew uninstall mrffmpeg

Uninstalling /usr/local/Cellar/mrffmpeg/4.4_2... (245 files, 234MB)

brew untap matt/core  

Untapping matt/core...

Untapped 1 formula (33 files, 28.4KB).

小贴士

1、为了提升安装速度,一定要安装镜像 homebrew | 镜像站使用帮助 | 清华大学开源软件镜像站 | Tsinghua Open Source Mirror

2、Homebrew 经常会在执行命令的时候触发更新,如果你的确不想让他更新,可以 Ctrl+c 打断,原本的命令就会继续执行了,因为更新通常会稍微耗点时间如果长时间没有更新的话;建议几个月来一次 brew update ,确保使用的库都是最新最稳定的。

3、遇到问题可以追加 –verbose 查看详细日志

4、通过 brew 安装的包,如果有 lib 或者 dylib 生成,默认会放到 /usr/local/lib/ 下,头文件放在 /usr/local/include 下(里面都是软连接),实际包放在 /usr/local/Cellar/包名/版本 目录下

5、同一个 tap 不可以使用不同的仓库,否则报错:

brew tap matt/core https://github/debugly/FFmpeg.git
Updating Homebrew...
==> Auto-updated Homebrew!
Updated 1 tap (homebrew/services).
No changes to formulae.

Error: Tap matt/core remote mismatch.
https://github.com/debugly/BrewFormula.git != https://github/debugly/FFmpeg.git

参考

官网

全部文档

Taps (Third-Party Repositories)

程序员 Homebrew 使用指北 - 少数派 (sspai.com)


Mac 包管理工具 Homebrew
https://debugly.cn/2021/09/28-home-brew.html
作者
许乾隆
发布于
2021年9月28日
许可协议